Accrescent.- That continues to grow in size after being fully formed.

Achene.- Indehiscent dry fruit, containing a single seed, with the pericarp not welded to the seed.

Acicula (pl. aciculae).- Long and narrow needle-shaped leaf, such as pine needles.

Acicular.- Needle-shaped, especially applied to a leaf.

Actinomorphic.- With radial form or symmetry; in the case of flowers, when they have two or more planes of symmetry.

Aculeate.- Armed with prickles.

Aculeus (pl. aculei).- Sharp point, prickle; like those in roses and blackberries.

Acuminate.- Applied particularly to foliaceous organs, tapering sharply towards the apex ending in one point.

Adnate.- Attached or fused to a different part.

Adventitious.- Applied to roots, coming directly from aerial stems or branches, such as in ivy, and used by the plant to anchor itself to the support it climbs.

Alien.- Applied to species growing in a country or place from which they are not native or do not originate from.

Allopatric.- That grows in different territories.

Alveolate.- With tiny depressions on its surface.

Ament. – Catkin.

Amplexicaul.- Embracing, clasping the stem.

Androecium (pl. androecia).- All the male reproductive organs of a flower, formed by the stamens..

Anther.- The more or less bulky part of the stamen in which the pollen is produced.

Anthesis (pl. antheses).- Time during which a flower is open. It may also refer to the opening of the flower.

Anthropic.- Of or related to human beings or mankind.

Apetalous.- Applied to a flower, without petals.

Aphyllous.- Without leaves, leafless.

Apical.- Related to the apex, or located in or around the apex.

Apiculate.- Ending in a short point, as the beak of a bird.

Apophysis (pl. apophyses).- In conifer strobili, the projecting portion of the seminiferous scales.

Appendage.- A part that is joined to a larger part.

Applied.- Appressed. .

Appressed.- Referred to an organ or growth, pressed together or close to axis or surface on which it is inserted.

Apterous.- Without wings (laminar expansions).

Arachnoid.- Applied to hairs (or to the organs that are covered by them), long, delicate and intertwined resembling a spider’s web.

Aril.- A more or less fleshy appendage that appears on the surface of some seeds.

Arista.- Long, thin but rigid pointed axis.

Article.- In certain articulate organs, such as stems or loments, segment between two nodes.

Arundinaceous.- Resembling a reed.

Auricle.- Foliaceous appendage or lobe at the base of an organ, usually leaf, bract or petal, usually small and rounded, shaped like an ear.

Auriculate.- Applied to a leaf, bract or petal, having ear-shaped appendages near the base.

Bacciform.- Resembling a berry.

Basifixed.- Fixed at the base, especially referred to anthers that are inserted into the filament at the base and point away from it.

Berry.- Indehiscent fruit, with the outer layer —epicarp— generally very thin and the middle layer —mesocarp— thickened and fleshy.

Bifacial.- Having two different sides or surfaces.

Bifoliate.- With two leaves.

Bifoliolate.- Applied to a leaf, having two leaflets.

Bifurcate.- Applied to an organ (e.g. a stem), when it is forked. Dichotomous.

Bilabiate.- With two lips. In many flowers, this is the name given to corolla or calyx when its parts, which are fused at the base, have their distal portions facing each other resembling lips.

Bipinnate.- Applied to leaves, twice pinnate.

Biserrate.- Applied to the edge of an organ with teeth like a saw which in turn have smaller teeth also in the shape of a saw.

Brachyblast.- Stem with limited growth, with nodes very close to each other.

Bract.- A more or less modified leaf, different from normal leaves, appearing in the inflorescence.

Bracteole.- A more or less differentiated bract borne on the peduncle or on the base of the flower.

Bud.- Rudimentary outbreak protected by squamiform leaves, which will lead to a branch or flower.

Caducous.- Falling early, soon after formation; not persistent.

Calcifuge.- A plant that is incapable of living or thriving in calcareous soil.

Calyx (pl. calyces).- Outermost whorl of the perianth of the flower, usually green, consisting of the sepals.

Campanulate.- Bell-shaped.

Canaliculate.- Having one or more longitudinal canals or grooves.

Canescent.- Covered in short white hairs.

Capitate.- Applied to the stigma, having a knob-like tip resembling the head of a pin.

Capituliform.- Applied to an inflorescence, resembling a capitulum.

Capitulum (pl. capitula).- Compositae inflorescence (but not exclusive to this family). It consists of a more or less enlarged and thickened receptacle on which numerous sessile flowers are arranged tightly, usually surrounded by one or more rows of bracts (involucre), like the sunflower.

Capsule.- Dry fruit, formed by two or more united carpels, that opens at maturity to release the seeds.

Carina.- Keel.

Carinate.- Having a keel.

Carpel.- Each of the organs that form the female sexual whorl of a flower, in essence modified leaves in the shape of urns that bear ovules inside.

Caruncula (pl. carunculae).- Fleshy excrescence that grows on some seeds, near the hilum, and is associated with animal dispersal;  the carancule is next to the micropyle.

Carunculate.- Having one or more carunculae.

Caryopsis (pl. caryopses or caryopsides).- A type of indehiscent fruit (in Poaceae) in which the endocarp adheres to the single seed it contains.

Catkin.- Compact, usually pendant inflorescence with very small unisexual flowers.

Caudate.- Tapering into a long extension or appendage, resembling a tail.

Cauline.- Concerning the stems.

Chamaephyte.- Any low-growing perennial plant with buds that persist just above soil level during the winter.

Chartaceous.- Resembling paper or parchment.

Ciliolate.- Having thin hairs, especially at the edge of a laminar organ, arranged like eyelashes.

Cilium (pl. cilia).- Very fine and longish hair growing on the edge of an organ, like an eyelash.

Cincinnus (pl. cincinni).- Scorpioid cyme, where successive axes arise alternately in respect to the preceding one.

Circinate.- Spirally coiled from base to apex, like the hairs of some gorse.

Circumscissile.- A capsule dehiscing transversaly along a circular line, the top of the capsule coming of as a lid.

Cladode.- Compressed or even laminar branch with a single internode, where the photosynthetic function occurs.

Clavate.- Shaped like a club, becoming increasingly broader towards the rounded apex.

Climactic.- That is in the climax.

Climax.- Maximum stage of biological development in the succession of a plant community.

Coeval.– Appearing at the same time.

Compound.- Leaf with a limb that is divided into portions or leaflets.

Concolorous.- With the same colour in different parts.

Concrescent.- Applied to organs or parts of organs, growing together instead of growing separately.

Cone.- Strobilus.

Connivent.- Referred mostly to opposed or verticillate organs, converging at the top without becoming fused.

Cordate.- With the shape of a heart; usually applied to a leaf that is notched at the base and pointed at the apex.

Cordiform.- Cordate.

Coriaceous.- Of more or less hard, rubbery and flexible consistency, like leather.

Corolla.- Inner perianth whorl, usually brightly and attractively coloured. Consisting of petals.

Corymb.- Inflorescence in which the floral pedicels start from different points along the main axis but where flowers all reach to more or less the same level.

Corymbiform.- Applied to an inflorescence, resembling a corymb.

Crenate.- Applied to laminar organs, such as leaves, with margins that have very obtuse or rounded teeth.

Crenation.- A rounded tooth at the edge of a leaf or other laminar organ.

Crenulate.- Crenate but with very small rounded teeth.

Crisped.- Applied to leaves, with a curly, very undulated margin; also applied to hairs in ringlets.

Cucullate.- Having the edges rolled inwards; hooded.

Cuneate.- Applied to leaves, with straight sides covering at the base.

Cuneiform.– Cuneate.

Cupule.- Protective organ that surrounds the base or the entire fruit at maturity, as the cupule of acorns.

Cuspidate.- Applied to many foliaceous or solid organs, when the end tapers abruptly to a point or apex.

Cyathium (pl. cyathia).- In Euphorbiaceae, inflorescence resembling a single flower, consisting of cup-shaped involucre enclosing several extremely reduced male flowers and a single female flower.

Cyme.- Inflorescence in which the main axis ends in a flower and is surpassed in growth by the lateral axes.

Cynarrhodium (pl. cynarrhodia).Complex fleshy fruit in roses, constituted by the cup-shaped flower receptacle which includes inside the real fruits.

Cypsela.- Type of achene produced by an inferior ovary with more than one carpel.

Deciduous.- Applied to a plant, shedding all its leaves annually at the same period; not evergreen

Decumbent.- Applied to stems, growing inclined or lying on the ground, except at the apex.

Decurrent.- Applied to a leaf, having a blade that extends downwards along the stem as wings or raised lines.

Deflexed.- Bent downwards.

Dehiscence.- Opening of an organ, as in many fruits when ripe, in pine cones, etc.

Denticulate.- Minutely toothed.

Diadelphous.- Applied to the androecium, with stamens arranged in two groups.

Dialypetalous.- Applied to a flower, having petals spaced apart from each other from the base.

Dichotomous.- Bifurcate.

Didynamous.- Applied to an androecium, containing four stamens of which two are longer, as in many labiate flowers.

Dioecious.- Applied to a plant, having unisexual individuals, i.e. producing flowers of a single sex.

Disc floret.- In Compositae, each of the tubular actinomorphic flowers in the centre of a capitulum.

Discolorous.- Of a different colour.

Distichous.- Referred to the leaves and branchlets of a plant, arranged in two opposite rows.

Dithecous.- Applied to an anther, composed of two cells or chambers (thecas).

Divaricate.- Having very divergent branches that spread in different directions.

Dorsifixed.- Fixed somewhere along the back, especially referred to anthers that are inserted into the filament along their back.

Drupe.- Fleshy indehiscent fruit, with the innermost layer –endocarp– hardened, of stony consistency, holding the seed inside.

Ebracteate.- Applied to an inflorescence or flower, without bracts.

Echinulate.- Armed with small bristles or spines.

Edaphic.- Relating to the soil.

Eglandular.- Without glands.

Eglanduliferous.- Not bearing glands.

Emarginate.- In laminar organs, such as leaves, having a distinct notch at the apex.

Endocarp.- Innermost layer of the fruit wall or pericarp.

Ensiform.- Long and narrow, ending in a sharp point.

Epicalyx (pl. epicalyces).- An involucre that resembles an extra calyx.

Epicarp.- Outermost layer of the pericarp.

Epigynous.- Applied to flower, having sepals, petals and stamens that are inserted above the ovary, which is partially or completely sunk in the receptacle (inferior ovary). See hypogynous.

Exserted.- Projecting, like the stamens of many flowers when they project beyond the perianth.

Face.- Top side or adaxial of the leaf blade.

Falcate.- Shaped like a sickle or scythe, especially applied to a laminar organ.

Farinaceous.- Resembling flour, especially in texture; mealy.

Farinose.- Covered in a mealy, white powder.

Fascicle.- Small group of leaves, flowers, etc., that arise from the same point or close together.

Fasciculate.- Having fascicles.

Filament.- The stalk of the stamen.

Filiform.- Very thin and elongated, thread-like.

Fimbriate.- Applied to a laminar organ, having a margin divided into thin segments or lacinia.

Fleshy.- Applied to stems, leaves or fruits, highly hydrated, with a meaty consistency.

Floccose.- Applied to an organ, coated in hairs that are agglomerated into tufts.

Floret.- Each of the small individual flowers that make up an inflorescence.

Foliaceous.- Leaf-like.

Foliar.- Pertaining or relating to the leaf.

Follicle.- Fruit from a single carpel, dry and dehiscent along a ventral suture.

Foveolate.- With small superficial depressions (foveolae).

Funicle.- Stalk that connects the ovule or the seed with the placenta.

Galbulus (pl. galbuli).- A fleshy strobilus of gymnosperms (as in junipers), that produces seeds.

Galeate.- Shaped like a helmet, especially applied to petals or other laminar organs.

Gall.- A growth or hypertrophy induced in organs of a plant as a response to the bite or eggs of some insects or an attack by certain parasites. Also, a globose growth common, for instance, in some oaks.

Gamopetalous.- Sympetalous.

Geminate.- In pairs, coupled. Many flowers are arranged in this way.

Geniculate.- Having distinct, knee-like joints.

Gibbous.- With a small projection like a hump, like the cupule scales of many acorns.

Glabrescent.- Almost glabrous, with very few hairs.

Glabrous.- Devoid of hairs; hairless.

Gland.- Cell or group of cells able to accumulate or expel a secretion.

Glanduliferous.- Bearing glands.

Glaucescent.- Becoming glaucous or almost glaucous.

Glaucous.- Blue-green in colour.

Glomerule.- Cluster of dense flowers with globose shape.

Glume.- In grasses, each of the two squamiform bracts that surround the spikelet.

Gynobasic.- Applied to the style, arising apparently from the base of the pistil, and not its apex.

Gynodioecious.– With some plants bearing hermaphrodite flowers and other plants bearing only female flowers.

Gynoecium (pl. gynoecia).- Set of carpels (female parts) of a flower.

Gynostegium (pl. gynostegia).- In flowers, an unspecified covering of the gynoecium. In Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae mainly, a compound structure comprising the staminal column and the head of the stigma.

Hairless.- Glabrous.

Halophyte.-  Any plant is adapted to grow in an area with a high salt content.

Halophytic.- Applied to a plant, growing well in areas with high salt content.

Hastate.- Applied to a laminar organ, having two divergent lobes at the base, pointing outwards.

Haustorium (pl. haustoria).- Organ of a parasitic plant that absorbs nutrients from its host.

Heliophilous.- Living without difficulty in places heavily exposed to sunlight.

Hemicryptophyte.- A plant whose buds rest on the soil surface.

Hemiparasitic.- Parasite plant that, despite having haustoria, can simultaneously perform photosynthesis.

Hermaphrodite.- Flower with male and female organs, or plant with flowers that meet this condition.

Heterogamous.- Applied to Compositae capitula, bearing two or more kinds of flowers.

Hirsute.- Covered with stiff hairs, coarse to the touch.

Hispid.- Covered with very stiff or bristly hairs.

Holarctic.- Related to the biogeographic Holarctic region, comprising the territories in the northern hemisphere above 20 degrees latitude.

Homogamous.- Applied to Compositae capitula, bearing all the flowers of the same kind.

Honeydew.- Sugary exudate secreted by some plants through wounds caused by some insects.

Hyaline.- Transparent.

Hypanthium (pl. hypanthia).- Cup-shaped or tubular receptacle that surrounds the inferior ovary of a flower.

Hypocotyl.- Portion of the main axis of the embryo or the seedling between the radicle and junction of the cotyledons.

Hypocrateriform.- Salver-Shaped; with a long narrow tube abruptly expanded into a shorter flat or spreading limb.

Hypogynous.- Applied to a flower, having sepals, petals and stamens that are inserted below or at same level as the ovary (superior ovary). See epigynous.

Imbricate.- Tight and overlapping arrangement of laminar organs, like tiles on a roof.

Imparipinnate.- Applied to a compound leaf, having an odd number of leaflets.

Incanous.– Covered in white, abundant hair.

Incised.- Applied to a leaf or other laminar organ, cut into irregular parts.

Indumentum (pl. indumenta).- Group of hairs, glands or scales covering the surface of an organ.

Inferior.- Applied to an ovary, inserted in the receptacle lower to the sepals, petals and stamens, making an epigynous flower. See superior.

Inflorescence.- Any system or arrangement of more than one flower.

Infundibuliform.- Shaped like a funnel.

Intricate.-  Tangled with branches and dense branchlets which sometimes intertwine.

Introgression.- Formation of populations with intermediate characteristics between two species by hybridization processes.

Introrse.- Turned towards an axis or, if applied to an anther, turned towards the centre of the flower.

Involucre.- A series of organised bracts or bracteoles around certain inflorescences, as the capitulum of Compositae or the umbel in Umbelliferae.

Involute.- Applied to a laminar organ, like a leaf, when its edges are curved or rolled towards the upper/adaxial surface. See revolute.

Keel.- Elongated projection along the surface of a fruit or flower, like the keel of a ship runs the entire length of the hull. In zygomorphic flowers of Fabaceae (legumes), it applies to the lower two petals.

Lacinia (pl. laciniae).- One of several very deep and narrow lobes that form a fringe in certain laminar organs.

Laciniate.- Divided in laciniae or having laciniae.

Lanate.- With long and more or less wavy hair, very soft to the touch, reminiscent of wool.

Lanceolate.- Narrowly elliptical and tapering to a point, like the blade of a spear.

Lanuginous.- Similar to lanate, but with shorter hair.

Laticiferous.- Containing latex.

Lax.- Not congested.

Leaflet.- Each of the laminar parts in a compound leaf, articulated on the rachis or on its divisions.

Legume.- Dry fruit derived from a single carpel, dehiscent at maturity into two valves; characteristic of most Fabaceae.

Lenticel.- Lenticular opening in the bark of many plants, which facilitates the exchange of gases.

Lenticular.- Shaped like a lentil.

Lianescent.- Resembling a liana.

Ligule.- Zygomorphic and unilabiate flower from the Compositae capitulum, with 3 or 5 teeth at its end. Membranous leaf expansion of the Poaceae (Gramineae) located at the junction between the blade and the sheath.

Limb.- Expanded portion of the leaf, usually laminar, or the upper, usually expanded, flat part of the calyx or corolla.

Lobe.- A division of a laminar organ to about halfway.

Lobulate.- Divided into lobules or made up of lobules.

Locule.- Applied to the ovary or the fruit, compartment, cavity.

Loculicidal.- Referred to a capsule, dehiscent longitudinally bisecting each loculus.

Loment.- Dry indehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel, more or less articulated, which at maturity divides transversely into 1-seeded portions; characteristic of some Fabaceae.

Lomentaceous.- Related to the loment or having fruits like loments.

Macroblast.- Stem with obvious nodes and long internodes.

Marcescent.- Applied to leaves and other organs, remaining for long on the plant after drying. Also applied to plants with leaves of this type.

Medifixed.- Attached near the middle.

Melliferous.- Applied to a plant, attracting bees due to the high production of nectar in its flowers, which the bees use to make honey.

Mesocarp.- Middle layer of the pericarp, located between the endocarp and the epicarp.

Microsporophyll.- Modified leaf that bears pollen-sacs.

Monadelphous.- Applied to the androecium, with stamens more or less fused by the filaments forming a single face.

Monochlamydeous.- Applied to a plant or flower, having one whorl of perianth segments.

Monoecious.- Applied to a plant, having unisexual flowers, with both types appearing on the same individual.

Monospermous.- Having a single seed.

Mucro.- Short pointed end of an organ, somewhat acute.

Mucronate.- Applied to an organ, topped by a short, sharp point or mucro.

Mucronulate.- Having a minute mucro.

Multifid.- Divided into numerous lobes.

Multiflorous.- Having many flowers.

Multinervate.- Having multiple nervations.

Muticous.-  Blunt, without a point.

Navicular.- Shaped like a boat or like the hull of a ship.

Nectar.- Sugary exudate, such as that produced by many flowers or other parts of the plant. It is a reward for pollinating insects.

Nectary.- Organ in which the nectar is formed.

Nictinastia.- Light reaction of generally laminar organs of plants (such as leaves or petals), which usually appear extended during the day and folded at night.

Notched.- Emarginate.

Nuciform.- Resembling a nut.

Nut.- Dry and indehiscent fruit with a hardened wall.

Nutlet.- A little nut. In the Labiatae, it refers to each of the portions of the fruit.

Nyctinastic.- Related to nyctinasty, the movement of leaves or petals in response to changes in light and darkness.

Obconical.- With the shape of an inverted cone.

Obcordate.- With the shape of an inverted heart.

Oblanceolate.- Lanceolate, but with distal end wider than the base.

Oblong.- Longer than wide, elongated.

Obovate.- With the shape of an inverted egg.

Offshoot.- Shoot that grows in a tree after it was cut or pruned.

Operculate.- Having an operculum.

Operculum.- A lid or covering part, especially of a fruit or a sporangium.

Opposite.- Applied to branches, leaves, etc., inserted in pairs and facing one another.

Orbicular.- Rounded, circular.

Ostiole.- Hole or opening, as in the opening at the apex of a fig.

Oval.- Broadly elliptic. In botanical language, “oval” is not recommended and “elliptic” is preferred.

Ovary.- Basal and bulkier part of the pistil, formed by a single carpel, or several carpels welded together, containing the ovules.

Ovate.- Egg-shaped, mostly applied to laminar organs (such as leaves or petals).

Ovoid.- Egg-shaped, mostly applied to three dimensional objects (such as the shape of a tree or a fruit).

Palmate.- Applied to laminate bodies, more or less divided, with the lobes are arranged like the fingers of an open hand.

Palmately compound.- Applied to a compound leaf, with the leaflets all inserted into the end of a common petiole.

Palmately veined.- With the main veins or nerves all starting from the same point and spread from there.

Palmatifid.- Applied to laminar organs, with palmate venation, divided into several lobes or lacinia reaching less than halfway to the base.

Palmatilobed.- Palmatifid, but with very obtuse lobes.

Palmatipartite.- Applied to a leaf, having lobes with a palmate arrangement (hand-shaped), with subdivisions extending more than halfway to the base.

Palmatisect.- Applied to a laminar organ, with palmate venation, divided into separate segments almost extending to the base.

Panicle.- Compound inflorescence, in the shape of a raceme of racemes, of roughly pyramidal shape.

Paniculate.- Applied to an inflorescence, resembling a panicle.

Papilionaceus.- Having a shape reminiscent of a butterfly, applied especially to zygomorphic corollas (like in most papilionoid Leguminosae).

Papilla (pl. papillae).- Small conical-obtuse or grainy protuberance.

Papillose.- Having papillae or resembling them.

Pappus (pl. pappuses or pappi).- Set of scales or hairs often present in the apex of the Compositae fruit.

Papyraceous.- Papery; with the appearance and consistency of paper.

Paripinnate.- Compound leaf with an even number of leaflets.

Patent.- Applied to stems, leaves, etc., inserted at a 90 degrees angle.

Pauciflorous.- Applied to an inflorescence, having few flowers.

Pectinate.- Applied to the divisions or leaflets of a leaf, arranged roughly parallel, as the teeth of a comb.

Pedicel.- Stalk that links the flower to the stem or to the branches of the inflorescence.

Pedicellate.- Having a pedicel; stalked.

Peduncle.- Stalk of an inflorescence; stalk of a fruit.

Peltate.- With the shape of an umbrella. Applied to hairs and to laminar organs in which the petiole is inserted into the centre of the lamina.

Pendulous.- Pendant or hanging.

Pentamerous.- With five parts or portions; applied to floral whorls according to the number of parts they are made of.

Perfoliate.- Applied to a leaf, arranged so that the stem it is attached to appears to pass through the leaf blade.

Perianth.- Collective term for the sterile whorls of a flower, usually composed of calyx and corolla.

Perianthless.- Applied to a flower, lacking a perianth.

Pericarp.- Wall of the fruit, resulting from the transformation of the carpel during fruiting.

Perigon.- Perianth.

Perigynous.- Ovary that is only partially sunk in the floral receptacle, so that the perianth parts are carried up around the ovary on a hypanthium. It is intermediate between the superior ovary and the inferior ovary.

Petal.- Each of the component parts of the corolla.

Petiole.- Stalk linking the limb of the leaf with the stem; it can sometimes be missing, in which case the leaf is called sessile.

Petiolulate.- Supported by a petiolule.

Petiolule.- The stalk of individual leaflets in a compound leaf that connects each of the leaflets with leaf rachis.

Phylloclade.- Modified branch with several internodes that resembles and performs the same functions of a leaf, including photosynthesis. They are common in Ruscaceae.

Pilose.- Covered in fine, soft, long hair; close to villous.

Pinna (pl. pinnae).- Leaflet of a pinnate leaf.

Pinnate.- Having pinnae or leaflets.

Pinnately compound.- Compound leaf in which the leaflets or pinnae are arranged on either side of the axis or rachis like the teeth of a comb.

Pinnatifid.- Applied to a pinnatinervate laminar body (e.g. a leaf), deeply divided into lobes with incisions that extend less than halfway toward the midrib.

Pinnatilobed.- Pinnatifid, but with very obtuse lobes.

Pinnatinervate.- With veins or nerves starting from both sides of the midrib.

Pinnatipartite.- Applied to a pinnatinervate laminar organ (e.g. a leaf), deeply divided with slits more than halfway to the midrib.

Pinnatisect.- Applied to a pinnatinervate laminar organ (e.g. a leaf), deeply divided with slits reaching the midrib.

Pistil.- Female organ of a flower, composed of one or several carpels welded together, and often differentiated into an ovary (that contains the ovules), a style and a stigma.

Pith.- Central strand of spongy tissue in stems and branches of vascular plants.

Pleiochasium (pl. pleiochasia).- Cymose inflorescence with a central, terminal flower, below which three or more lateral flowering branches develop.

Pleurogram.- Areole in the seed of some Fabaceae.

Pollen.- Fertile cells protected by a fairly hardened and ornamented casing, which are formed within the anthers, and will fertilise the ovules.

Polygamous.- Applied to a plant, carrying unisexual and hermaphrodite flowers.

Polymorphic.- Variable in shape.

Polyploidy.- The state of having more than the usual number of complete sets of chromosomes.

Pome.- Complex fruit, derived from an epigynous flower, with a structure not only formed by the carpels but also by the receptacle that becomes fleshy. It is common in many Rosaceae such as the apple.

Precocious.- In phenology, applied to an organ, appearing or developing before another.

Procumbent.- Applied to a plant, with stems that grow crawling on the ground, but not rooting at the nodes.

Pruinose.- Having a waxy coating –pruina–, common in many fruits (e.g. plum) and other aerial organs.

Pseudanthium (pl. pseudanthia).- An inflorescence that has the appearance of being a single flower.

Puberulent.- Minutely pubescent, with hairs hardly visible.

Puberulous.- Shortly pubescent.

Pubescent.- Covered with abundant fine and soft hair, velvety in appearance.

Pulverulent.- Covered with fine powder.

Pulvinate.- Related to the habit of a plant, shaped like a cushion.

Pulvinus (pl. pulvini).- A swollen base or apex of the petiole or petiolule.

Punctum (pl. puncta).- A point or dot.

Pustulate.- Applied to hairs, with a thickened base.

Pyrene.- The stone (the seed inside a hard layer of endocarp) of a drupe.

Pyriform.- Pear-shaped.

Pyrophyte.- A plant well adapted to areas that burn regularly.

Raceme.- Inflorescence in which flowers are borne on pedicels along the main axis, developing gradually from its base to the apex.

Racemiform.- Applied to an inflorescence, resembling a raceme.

Rachis.- In pinnately compound leaves, the axis (extension of the petiole) on which the leaflets are arranged.

Radiate.- In Compositae, the capitula with disc florets in the centre and ray flowers in the periphery, such as daisies.

Radicant.- Producing roots.

Ray floret.- In Compositae, each of the zygomorphic florets in the margin of the capitulum.

Receptacle.- Enlarged portion of the floral pedicel on which the perianth parts and sexual organs are inserted. In Compositae, flat, concave or convex upper part of the peduncle from which the parts of the capitulum arise.

Reniform.- Kidney-shaped.

Repand.- Having an uneven margin, with shallow undulations.

Reticulate.- With a network-like pattern.

Retrorse.- Bent backwards (in the direction opposite to the apex of the organ).

Retuse.- Applied to leaves, petals, etc., having a rounded apex that is slightly notched in the middle.

Revolute.- Applied to a laminar organ, like a leaf, having edges that are curved or rolled towards the underside/abaxial surface. See involute.

Rhizomatous.- Possessing a rhizome, an underground stem from which roots, aerial stems and even flowers can grow, and in which the leaves are reduced to membranous scales.

Rootstock.- Underground and more or less woody part of perennials plants, from which the roots and the stem sprout.

Rostrate.- Ending in a beak.

Rotate.- Applied to gamopetalous corollas, having a short tube and expanded obvious limb, resembling a wheel.

Rupicolous.- Growing on rocks.

Sacciform.- Shaped like a pouch.

Sagittate.- With the shape of an arrowhead, with two fairly divergent basal lobes.

Samara.- Dry indehiscent fruit with one or more laminar expansions or wings.

Sarmentose.- Applied to a plant, having long, slender and flexible woody branches that can rest on surrounding objects or trail on the ground.

Scabrid.- Rough in texture.

Scalloped.- Crenate.

Scaly.- Covered with scales.

Scarious.- Applied to laminar organs, membranous, dry and translucent.

Schizocarp.- Indehiscent fruit that divides into single seeded parts (mericarps).

Sclerophyllous.- With tough leaves, usually thick, rigid, small and persistent, adapted to withstand long periods of drought.

Seminal primordium.- Initial, rudimentary state of the ovule.

Septicidal.- Referred to a type of dehiscence, dividing longitudinally along a septum.

Septum (pl. septa).- The wall between two locules of a syncarpous ovary.

Sericeous.- Covered in an indumentum of short, fine, appressed and silky hairs.

Serrated.- Applied to the edge of an organ, with teeth like a saw.

Serrulate.- Applied to the edge of an organ, with teeth like a saw which in turn have smaller teeth also in the shape of a saw.

Sessile.- Applied to an organ, without a stalk or support.

Seta (pl. setae).- A bristle, or stiff hair.

Setaceous.- As thin as a seta (a rigid hair).

Setose.- With stiff hairs or setae.

Sheath.- Widened base of a leaf that envelops the stem. In pines, is the membranous structure that brings together the leaves in groups of 2 or 3.

Sheathing.- Creating a sheath that totally or partially encloses a part of the plant.

Siliceous.- Applied to a soil, rich in silica.

Silicicolous.- Applied to a plant, living exclusively or preferably on soils that are rich in silica (siliceous), in areas devoid of lime or carbon due to abundant precipitation.

Siliqua (pl. siliquae).- Type of fruit, narrow, long, dry, divided into two cells by a thin partition, opening in two valves when ripe.

Sinuate.- Applied to a laminar organ, having the margin wavy with shallow indentations.

Sinus (pl. sinuses).- The notch or depression formed between the teeth of a leaf, between two lobes, or between two other parts of an organ.

Spadix (pl. spadixes or spadices).- Fleshy spike, with flowers that are generally unisexual and inconspicuous, usually enveloped by a spathe, as in Araceae.

Spathaceous.- Shaped like a spathe.

Spathe.- Large bract (or pair of bracts) that envelops the flower or the inflorescence.

Spatulate.- Shaped like a spatula, widening towards the apex that is obtuse or truncated.

Spiciform.- Applied to an inflorescence, resembling a spike.

Spike.- Simple inflorescence, unbranched, with sessile flowers arranged more or less tightly along an axis.

Spikelet.- Small or secondary spike that, aggregated with others around a common axis, forms a compound spike, as in the inflorescences of grasses.

Spinulose.- Covered in very small spines.

Spur.- Conical or slightly elongated projection that sometimes appears at the base of leaves or floral parts. In flowers, they often accumulate nectar. Some leaf spurs can be modified into spines, such as in certain asparagus.

Squamiform.- With the shape or form of a scale.

Stamen.- Male sexual organ of the flower, usually consisting of a filament with a bulge or anther at the apex, where pollen formation takes place.

Staminal.- Concerning or constituting the stamen.

Staminode.- Sterile stamen, which has lost its functionality; it may be rudimentary or acquire a laminar form.

Standard.- Upper petal of many legume corollas.

Stellate.- Star-shaped, disposed around a centre, in a radiating manner.

Stigma.- Receptive part of the pistil, usually located at its apex, to which pollen grains adhere for germination and fertilization.

Stipe.- In Arecaceae (palms), an individual stem or trunk. | In Fabaceae, the stalk inside the flower or fruit which supports the carpel or gynoecium.

Stipitate.- Applied to organs, supported by a stipe or stalk.

Stipule.- Each of the two usually foliaceous appendages that may appear on both sides of the petiole base of a leaf.

Stipuliform.- Shaped like a stipule.

Striation.-  Fine groove or channel, especially one in a parallel series.

Strigose.- Densely covered in stiff hairs, laying close to the surface.

Strobilus (pl. strobili).- Name given to the structures of conifers with a major axis and numerous spirally arranged bracts, with sexual organs arranged on their adaxial face. Cone, pine-cone.

Strophiole.- Excrescence that grows near the hilum of some seeds, and is associated with animal dispersal. | Outgrowth from the raphe.

Stylar.- Of the style o related to the style.

Style.- Upper part of the pistil, often in the shape of a small column, with the stigma at its apex.

Suberose.- Corky, with suber or cork.

Subspontaneous.- It applies to non-native species that escape from captivity or cultivation and grow in the wild, but have not become completely naturalised.

Subulate.- Tapering into a sharp point from a broader base; awl-shaped.

Suffrutex (pl. suffrutices).- Subshrub; small shrub, woody only at the base.

Suffruticose.- Applied to a shrub, woody only at the base.

Superior.- Applied to an ovary, inserted into the receptacle above or at same level of insertion of other floral parts (sepals, petals and stamens). It is also said that the flower is hypogynous. See inferior.

Syconium (pl. syconia).- Infructescence of the fig tree. Group of many tiny fruits contained inside a fleshy rounded receptacle. The fig is a syconium.

Sympetalous.- Applied to a flower, having the petals united at least at the base, forming a tube.

Tendril.- Specialised structure, elongated, flexible and coiling, which facilitates climbing; usually derived from the stem or leaf parts.

Tepal.- Undifferentiated perianth part in flowers with a simple perianth, or in flowers in which sepals and petals are similar.

Ternate.- With organs or equal parts in groups of three.

Testa.- The outer coat of the seed.

Tetragonous.- With four angles or corners.

Tetramerous.- With four parts or portions.

Thyrse (pl. thyrses).- A type of panicle inflorescence, with a racemose main axis and cymose secondary axes.

Tomentose.- Covered in hairs that are generally dense, short and matted.

Tomentulose.- Slightly tomentose.

Tomentum (pl. tomenta).- Dense covering of simple or branched hairs, completely lining an organ.

Torulose.- Cylindrical with more or less marked constrictions, such as rosary beads.

Trichome.- An epidermal emergence (such as a hair, scale, etc.).

Trifid.- Divided into three parts, especially three lobes.

Trifoliolate.- Applied to a leaf, having three leaflets.

Trifurcate.- Applied to an organ (e.g. a stem), divided into three branches or arms.

Trigonous.- With three angles or corners.

Trimerous.- With three parts or portions.

Trimonoecious.- Polygamous.

Trinervate.- With three nerves or veins.

Triquetrous.- Triangular in cross-section.

Truncate.- Applied to a laminar organ, ending in a transverse plane, as if it had been cut.

Tuberculate.- With small knobs or protuberances.

Tubular.- Shaped like a tube.

Turbinate.- Narrow at the base and wide at the apex, as an inverted cone.

Turion.- Young shoot, usually of vigorous growth.

Umbel.- Inflorescence with flowers on pedicels that arise from the same point, forming a three-dimensional structure resembling an umbrella.

Umbelliform.- In the shape of an umbel.

Umbilicate.- With a small, navel-like depression.

Umbonate.- Having a small elevation in the centre.

Uncinate.- Shaped like a hook at the end.

Unguiculate.- Having nails or claws.

Unifoliolate.- Having a single leaflet.            

Uninervate.- Having a single nerve.

Urceolate.- Shaped like an urn or a cup.

Urceolus (pl. urceoli).- Floral cup-shaped receptacle like those of roses and other plants.

Utricle.- A dry fruit, similar to an achene, but bladder-like or inflated.

Vallecula (pl. valleculae).- In Umbelliferae, each of the grooves between the ridges of the fruit.

Valve.- Each of the segments in which a capsule splits when ripening.

Valvular.- Of the valve or related to the valve.

Velutinous.- Covered in soft short hair, resembling velvet.

Venation.- Set and arrangement of veins in an organ.

Venose.- Having numerous veins.

Verrucose.- Covered in warts.

Verticillaster.- In the inflorescence of many Labiatae, the whorls of flowers or cymes arranged more or less tightly at each node along the main axis.

Vesicular.- Having vesicles. | Shaped like a vesicle.

Villous.- Covered in soft long hair.

Viscid.- Viscous or sticky.

Viscous.- Sticky, usually because of glandular exudates.

Vitta (pl. vittae).- Tube receptacle that contains oil in the fruit of some Umbelliferae and Amaranthaceae.

Whorl.- A set of more than 2 organs inserted at the same level around an axis. The floral parts are usually arranged in whorls and also some leaves.

Zygomorphic.- Applied to an organ, especially a flower, having bilateral symmetry, i.e. with a single plane of symmetry.


New taxonomic revisions and addictions on the web.
Two very interesting publications to know and conserve the native flora in Morocco and Egypt
Presentation of the web and more descriptions of species
Adenocarpus faurei, the first woody species in North Africa becomes extinct
IUCN Green Status of Species
Two new experts join the review of species
Thanks to the botanical magazine Al Yasmina, the contents of the “Flore de l’Afrique du Nord” by René Maire are now easily accessible.